Dating dna plus ipa
The second dimension distinguishes epithelium according to gut location, separating proximal, small bowel from distal, large bowel.(b) Unsupervised hierarchical clustering confirms developmental age as the main factor separating samples into two groups, i.e., fetal and pediatric.These findings were further confirmed by performing unsupervised hierarchical clustering analyses, demonstrating major methylation differences between fetal and pediatric intestinal epithelium (Figure 1b).
pediatric), whereas the second dimension (i.e., y axis) divides samples by gut segment.
Although shortly before birth the final crypt-villus architecture and all major cell subsets (e.g., absorptive enterocytes, Paneth cells, goblet cells, and enteroendocrine cells) are present, the epithelium remains functionally immature.
At birth, a dramatic change occurs as the epithelium is colonized by the microbiota.
Results were validated using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR, and immunostaining.
The functional impact of DNA methylation changes on gene expression was assessed by employing in-vitro assays in intestinal cell lines.